A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy. Diesel generating sets are used in places without connection to the power grid, as emergency power-supply if the grid fails, as well as for more complex applications such as peak-lopping, grid support and export to the power grid. Sizing of diesel generators is critical to avoid low-load or a shortage of power and is complicated by modern electronics, specifically non-linear loads.

Diesel generator set

The packaged combination of a diesel engine, a generator and various ancillary devices (such as base, canopy, sound attenuation, control systems, circuit breakers, jacket water heaters and starting system) is referred to as a "generating set" or a "genset" for short.

Set sizes range from 8 to 30 kW (also 8 to 30 kVA single phase) for homes, small shops & offices with the larger industrial generators from 8 kW (11 kVA) up to 2,000 kW (2500 kVA three phase) used for large office complexes, factories. A 2,000 kW set can be housed in a 40 ft ISO container with fuel tank, controls, power distribution equipment and all other equipment needed to operate as a standalone power station or as a standby backup to grid power. These units, referred to as power modules are gensets on large triple axle trailers weighing 85,000 pounds (38,555 kg) or more. A combination of these modules are used for small power stations and these may use from one to 20 units per power section and these sections can be combined to involve hundreds of power modules. In these larger sizes the power module (engine and generator) are brought to site on trailers separately and are connected together with large cables and a control cable to form a complete synchronized power plant.

Diesel generators, sometimes as small as 200 kW (250 kVA) are widely used not only for emergency power, but also many have a secondary function of feeding power to utility grids either during peak periods, or periods when there is a shortage of large power generators.

Ships often also employ diesel generators, sometimes not only to provide auxiliary power for lights, fans, and winches, etc. but also indirectly for main propulsion. With electric propulsion the generators can be placed in a convenient position, to allow more cargo to be carried. Electric drives for ships were developed prior to WW I. Electric drives were specified in many warships built during WW II because manufacturing capacity for large reduction gears was in short supply, compared to capacity for manufacture of electrical equipment.[1] Such a diesel-electric arrangement is also used in some very large land vehicles such as railroad locomotives.

Generator size

Generating sets are selected based on the Electrical load they are intended to supply, the electrical loads total characteristics (kWe, kVA, var's and Harmonic Content including starting currents (normally from motors) and non-linear loads. The expected duty, for example, emergency, prime or continuous power as well as environmental conditions such as altitude, temperature and emissions regulations must be taken into account as well.

Most of the larger generator set manufacturers offer software that will perform the complicated sizing calculations by simply inputting site conditions and connected electrical load characteristics.

Source: Wikipedia